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History of town
River is located on the shores of the Kvarner Bay, the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea, which Mediteran deepest crept right into the European continent, and that's where most closed countries in Central Europe. Since it is in the hinterland of the Dinaric Kvarner Highlands lowest, there is also the easiest transition between the Danube and Adriatic Sea. Therefore the position geoprometni Rivers extremely important. Great importance in the life of the river has Rječini, rocky river, which the city throughout the year provide healthy drinking water, and partially and electricity. Because the immediate hinterland of the river after 17 km, flows into the sea in the city. In the past, its estuary created only a natural refuge for sailing ships, so this was the first port of Rijeka. Thus Rjecina River estuary were first embryo of today's major port of Rijeka, the city built in the last century.
Poor nature and unsuitable relief, have always forced people to Rijeka for his survival at the sea and there found the basis of his life and work.
River and its surroundings with a surface area of 515 km2, and the town of 50 km2, is the third largest in Croatia.
This is an area inhabited in the distant past, and the first data on the population mentioned in the Roman Empire. In mid-19th The city has about 15,000 inhabitants, and to 90% of the population are Croats.
Accelerated economic development impact on large mechanical increment of population, as with natural, contributed to significant growth in population in the area of the river, so it is listed in 1991. The municipality of Rijeka had 206,229 inhabitants, and the town of Rijeka 167,964 inhabitants. Population Rivers is still the biggest part of Croatia (70%), but in Rijeka live harmoniously and members of other nations.
Level of literacy is very high, and level of education is appropriate, especially in the last 45 years, since the Rijeci established college, and since 1973. and University. Education has a rich tradition, particularly primary and secondary rudiments of which date back to the beginning of 15th the 17th century.
Acropolis numerous prehistoric settlements located on podbrđu around the Bay of Rijeka, usually near water and must, in the mutual visual communication system to make a fort opasanih powerful marginal embankment of stone walls. Says the top, Vela guard, Trsat berg, SS. Cross and Solin chronological dating from the Bronze to the Roman era, a witness of the very social organization Liburna, maritime and coastal people residing along the Kvarner and Istria to Labina. Roman finds discovered at the turn of the Rijeka Brajdi through Old Town to St. Lawrence in Susak, testify to the area that housed Tarsatica from 4th ct. Christ, the key point of the defense system cloistered Julian Alps, the so-called. "Liburnian limesa". Under the medieval walls, which are surrounding the old city, was discovered Roman substrukcija (Corso, Castle), the foundations of ancient walls with thickness of 1.8 to 2 meters. Not far from the Church of the Assumption of Mary, in Užarskoj Street, archaeological remains are explored hypocaust Roman spas and arhitekturnog canopy that extends westward to mljekarskog square. Old Gate (Arco Romano), bricked the house in the name of Kali, the entrance to the building of the Roman Pretorij limeske fort with the remains of walls from the 4th century, built in the technique of opus mixtum, recently discovered. From the Adriatic to the square Brajdi, with the route of the former Roman road which connected Tergeste (Trieste), through Tarsatica (Rivers) with Senio (Senjo), extending from the Roman necropolis 1-2. c. n. era, and under the destroyed buildings in St. Kortila. Lawrence in Sušaku (Hotel Neboder) was discovered near the foundations of cult buildings, Roman necropolis of the 4th stoljećaNakon franačkih destruction Tarsatica and barbaric sale in Istria Kvarner feels expansion of spiritual and political power the Roman Church.
New settlement on the site of demolished Roman Tarsatica, named after the church of Sv. Vida, Reka St. Vitus, Saint. Vid on Rječini, or St. Veit am Pflaum, has grown to talozima ancient and early Christian past. Attracted new residents near the coast, plenty of drinking water and shelter for ships in port at the mouth of Rjecina River, converted the primitive core concentrated around the church of Sv. Vision to the city within the ancient walls remaining Tarsatica, which have their gates, towers, streets and squares, and all this is related through the Bracket and Pregrada with tarsatički ager. Tarsatičke former seat of the diocese, Church of the Assumption of Mary, the church becomes operational, the center archdeaconry and chapter with the Church's jurisdiction in the area of Kvarner gospoštije. Archdeaconry remain directly subject to the bishop in Pula.
Weakening the authority of bishops and pulskog ambitions feudal dinasta, Devinaca, help slow the development of the city's autonomy, as these and related institutions, the City Statute and differentiation among the population. Noblemen, Devinci, built at the highest point in the city of ARX, Tower, powerful fortress, because of the late 13th The obtained feudatory considered their property. Between the 1336th and 1365th yr. "Holy Land Rijeka. Vida" as a pledge of her relatives Devinaca, kept the Krk princes, lords Vinodolske neighboring principality. Krk princes agreed restore river Devincima 1365th year. Devinska gentlemen, as a Germanic Families were vases and powerful transalpskih feudal dinasta, which interpret artistic inflow Alpine Gothic in Rijeka. This is contributed to the development of trade with the hinterland and across the sea. So the river from the second half of 14th century, as a feudal city-fortress, with a thin layer of feudal and formed patricijat, became rasadištem artistic aktivnosti.U period of 13 to 15 The Rijeka to develop the trade and maritime center, with the manual production and shipbuilding. River gets 1438th and its hospital, 1440th first cosmetic store, 1455th city school in Italian (the language of trade in the Mediterranean), and 1457th Kapitol school in languages with Glagolitic script. Until 1613. the Croatian language in official, public use, and since more and more used Latin and Italian. Of 13 The princes of Krk učvršćuju bulged najzapadniju point of their land Vinodolske principality, Trsat Tower. Not far from him, at the place where he stood by the legend of Nazareth House, Prince Nikola builds votive chapel. In 15th century that will be built in a Gothic one predicant and pilgrimage church of Our Lady Trsat. Its architecture was a reflection of the Mediterranean currents from Dalmatia. In 15th century is evident in the city of Rijeka express Mediterranean influence from Dalmatia.
But then, near the river strengthen competitive port Copper and Kraljevica, possession of powerful feudal families Zrinski. U sukobu s Bakrom riječka trgovina opada.
From the second decade of 17th century in Rijeka Madridskog peace after 1617. The smiruju opportunities. Developing the textiles, a large inflow of foreigners poduzetnih, trade is being developed sea and land so the city established its consul in numerous maritime center. Shows the need for education (high school Latin in 1627.), A new citizens imposed taste ustajaloj environment and the need for modernization of existing. Economic and competition policy posttridentinska the Habsburgs, the then feudal lord Rivers, contribute to the development of Baroque art. Monastic orders, Capuchin, Franciscans and Jesuits to their initiatives in building churches and monasteries towards connecting with the river of art Venice, Furlania and internal Austrian countries. Architects, painters and skulptori from large centers of artistic work in Rijeka and entered the international aspects of baroque style in the Sacred arhitekturu.U inventory Rijeka churches preserved the works of applied art, among which is, indisputably, the most valuable quality a grid of wrought iron in front of the sanctuary in the church of Our Lady Trsat from 1705. and fences on the pulpit at the Church of the Assumption of Mary in the Church of St.. Vida. Silver liturgical accessories in Rijeka churches represented by the works of famous Venetian, augzburških and Viennese srebrara, signed punca from the 17th and 18 century. These are numerous reliquaries Monstrance, the candlestick sets, pyramids and kandila in the Church of Our Lady Trsat, the Church of the Assumption and St. Mind. These papers do not meet the quality of the works of great cultural and religious headquarters.
Newly arrived citizens from the Veneto, Furlania, Gorica and Austrian countries, attracted by sea, trade and industry, have a need for nobilnom architecture, and this need increases announced Rivers in 1719. The free port. Since then the city, in the colonies, pristižu new population. For the purposes of proper maintenance of quarantines in the free port by Emperor Charles VI. their cost in 1722. Lazaretto built, of which preserved monumental baroque portal with a memorial inscription (in Krešimirovoj ul).
The river is 1750. catastrophic earthquake hit. This was the opportunity to expand the city and outside the medieval walls on the bulkhead and Rovu. By urban regulation zaslužnog architect Antuna Gnamba to be "the word triangle," or nasipavani space on turn Rjecina River between the mouth of the Adriatic, and today's square. It is also developing a coastal road from Mlaka to the Rječini Square (now Square JelačićaRječine ban and today's Adriatic Square. It is also developing a coastal road from Mlaka to the square on Rječini (now Ban Jelacic Square), Sade is from Planes @ abice to administrative buildings Sugar Refinery , built in 1782. on the initiative of privileged companies in the oriental style jozefinijanskog Baroque. After the 1750 earthquake. restored architecture in old city (Civitas vetus) adjusts to the aesthetic value of popular Baroque, while the architecture outside the Old Town, in the area of so-called. Civitas Nova, the regulated and nasipavanom area "triangle", carries the tag jozefinskog Baroque classicism.
Year 1848. the years of revolution and conflict with the Croats Hungarians. Joseph Bunjevac, Deputy of the Zagreb county, with authority Ban Jelacic 31st August 1848. returns Rijeka Croatia, and the ban Jelacic becomes governor. Croatian language is introduced in the Latin Grammar School, where Fran Kurelac (1849), a man who is its national and literary work marked the time. The National Reading (1850.), Which became the cultural focal point of Rijeka Croatia. Year 1851. of 12,272 inhabitants was 11,581 Croats, Italians 691, a number of other is negligible. Under the rule of banske Croatia, Rijeka remains two decades (1848. - 1868.).
Hungarian efforts are focused on capturing River. Parliament stresses the right of Croatia to the river as an integral part of establishing, with the confirmation of Austrian Emperor (8. November 1861.), The Rijeka County, which in predstavci, which he compiled Ante Starcevic, requires integrity ze Croatian Government in Budapest makes all that " Hungarian "river build in a strong naval port, as its outlet to the Adriatic Sea. At the same time, polustoljetnom Hungarian government in Rijeci contributed denationalization city. Hungarian authorities abolished the Croatian language into schools and introduced Italian and Hungarian. Croatian high school, as a national and cultural focal point of Rijeka Croatia, held in Rijeka from 1869. year, when the force moved in Susak, part of the town under Croatian rule. Political and ethnic Croats svijesni Rivers and Sušak, administratively separate parts of the city, not quiet watching action Hungarians who, because of their interests supported the Italian language and civil talijanizaciju layer. In Sušaku for 1878. starts to go out list Freedom, Croatia villa Journal (1882.), and printed the books in your language. Finally, the call patriotic this category, from Dubrovnik to Rijeka comes Frano Supilo, famous Croatian politician and a public employee, pravaša that in 1900. he began to publish political daily Novi list, first published in Sušaku since 1901. Rijeka. Over a broader list Supilo advanced political thought, to develop esprit de corps Croat resistance in Austria, Hungary pretensions of complete subjugation of Croatia and talijanaštvu.
Release of all the relations of Croatia with Hungary and the Hapsburgs Dynasty, at a session of Parliament in 29th October 1918. Rijeka is Croatia and returned to the Governor Zoltan Jekelfalusuzy the government representative National Council of States of SHS, a Governor Rikardo Lence. Dominion National Council of Rijeka takes a very short time. On behalf of the Entente Rijeka port 4th November 1918. enters the Italian fleet, and the Nile, 17th November 1918. occupying Italian army. In the city of 12th October 1919. intrusion Gabriele d 'Annunzio and his legionaries (arditima) and proclaims his power - regencu, which lasts until the 18th January 1921. Treaty of Rome of 27 January 1924. between Italy and the Kingdom of SHS, Rijeka was left to Italy.
After liberation, the main feature of the development of the Rijeka make the industrial economy, transporter-transit, and international-trade functions. They are enabled to become a powerful Rijeka traffic node, the main and biggest port in the country, one of the most powerful industrial centers in Croatia, the largest export-import center with strong foreign exchange inflows has significantly contributed to their balance of payments states. All this makes the river acquired maritime life of Croatia and the main urban center of the eastern coast of the northern Adriatic. Sixties began quickly spreading the Rijeka port, and its modernization. Year 1963. was built in a wheat silo, and 1967. automated, the work of the port cargo of bulk cement in Bakar. On Brajdica built a modern container terminal. Rijeka Port traffic in 1978. year reaching 14.7 million tons (in the 1950th year, 2.4 million tons).
Industry Rijeka is the most important economic activity, whose 22 major labor organizations earn approximately 28% of domestic product. After great efforts on investment in the reconstruction, industry river is rapidly evolving, reached a significant technological and commercial level with a big increase in employment and turnover preotela championship, which is long been the main feature of Rijeka economy. Developed and diverse maritime industry augments-service character of the river, meets the needs of a significant part of the population and strongly participate in international trade. In the energy sector is not a HE Rječini Rijeka and the Rijeka 1 located next to the refinery Urinj, in the east of town. These two object together produce 1900 GWh power. The most important industrial branches of the river is the processing of crude oil and production of petroleum products. Built oil pipeline from the island of Krk in the direction of Zagreb and to Hungary. Shipbuilding is the second leading industry in Rijeka.
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